Luniverse UseCase: Upbit NFT Marketplace

2021 was the year of NFT. In 2020, the total trade volume of NFT was roughly $94.9 million, which surged to $25 billion in one year (about 260 times). The number of blockchain wallets used to trade NFTs also surged from 545,000 in 2020 to 28.6 million in 2021 (more than 50 times). Various industries such as art, sports, and gaming, are implementing NFT, as it is a new keyword to lead the next generation along with Metaverse. Now, it is almost impossible to find a field without a connection to NFT.

What makes NFT so special? NFT stands for Non-Fungible Token. On the blockchain, where it is impossible to counterfeit or falsify, NFT is a unique token with an inherent ID and data. The remarkable $69 million worth digital art auction at Christie Auction started an NFT boom in virtually all industries.


Examples of NFT Marketplaces



National Basketball Association (NBA) sold digital cards of its players and the best scenes as NFTs. An NFT of LeBron James was sold for $23,000, and NBA TOPSHOT recorded $164 trade volume and 5.3 million trades only a month after its launch. 


Virtual world platform based on Ethereum, Decentraland, plays a significant role in the world of NFT. In Decentraland, users use a digital currency named MANA to transact virtual land and item.

<Source : Decentraland>


Decentraland gained explosive popularity and profited more than 4000% in 2021 alone. Virtual estate of Decentraland was sold for over $910,000, and a shopping center of Decentraland was sold for $2.4 million dollars in November 2021. 


Upbit NFT 

South Korea was not an exception from the NFT boom, and the biggest digital currency exchange in South Korea, Upbit, launched an NFT marketplace. Upbit created NFT content with Brave Girls and the South Korean Olympic athletes and is collaborating with diverse artists. One example is ‘mirage cat 3,’ an illustration of a famous artist Jang Koal, which was auctioned off for 250 million won (approximately $20.5k).

<Source : Upbit NFT>


Obviously, Upbit NFT is rising as the representative NFT marketplace of South Korea, and Luniverse is the blockchain on which Upbit NFT is built. Why did Upbit NFT choose Luniverse?

Why Luniverse?

Most Advanced Blockchain Technology in South Korea

With the advent of smart contracts, Ethereum has become a standard for almost all DApps. The ecology drew a myriad of users to Ethereum, but the excessive number of users yielded problems, such as lower TPS and high gas fees. Different solutions have been proposed in the field of blockchain, and the most popular one as of now is layer 2: a side chain to proceed with transactions quickly to confirm the details and record only the result on the Mainnet.

With state-of-art blockchain technology, Lambda256 has built a blockchain Mainnet which is more than 100 times faster than Ethereum – over 2000 TPS. Thus, companies from various fields are implementing business using Luniverse blockchain. Moveover, Lambda256 provides tokens called LUK for a stable Mainnet environment. LUK is used as a gas fee in the network, and every LUK only costs $0.01. Therefore, a dramatic increase in transactions in the network does not lead to an unaffordable gas fee like that of Ethereum. Furthermore, sidechain users do not pay gas fees. Users can easily issue tokens on a web page, which is a GUI environment and create transactions using Ethereum standard functions.

If someone is to mint an NFT on OpenSea, the biggest NFT marketplace in the world, he/she needs Ethereum worth more than $100 for a gas fee. However, if he/she mints an NFT through Luniverse Sidechain, no additional cost except for purchasing a Sidechain is needed. Luniverse has also announced that it plans to support a bridge for NFTs, meaning that users can move NFTs which are minted in the Luniverse chain to Ethereum Mainnet to trade in Ethereum-based NFT marketplaces.


Eco-Friendly Blockchain

One of the reasons for blockchain skeptics is excessive energy consumption. Both blockchains with the most active trades, Bitcoin and Ethereum, implement Proof of Work (PoW) to verify and create a block. PoW is a consensus algorithm that rewards miners who first verify and create a block. therefore, miners use numerous GPUs for the calculation and operate circulators to cool GPUs off. The process consumes an enormous amount of energy.


According to Digiconomist, Bitcoin has emitted 97.14Mt CO2 last year, which is comparable to the carbon emission of Kuwait. The electricity consumption of Bitcoin last year was 204.50TWh, which is comparable to that of Thailand.

Ethereum has consumed 107.58TWh of electricity last year, comparable to the annual electricity consumption of the Netherlands, and has emitted 51.1 Mt CO2 in the same period, comparable to the annual carbon emission of Sweden. The energy consumption of Bitcoin and Ethereum together surpasses that of Italy.

Therefore, Upbit has chosen the Luniverse blockchain for an eco-friendly blockchain environment. Luniverse implements a Proof of Authority consensus algorithm, in which blocks are verified and created by credible institutions. 24 cooperative companies, including Lambda256, participate as validators of Luniverse. Luniverse also consumes 1/10,000,000 of energy compared to Ethereum. The difference here is as big as the Mountain Everest to a leaf. Thanks to the eco-friendly system of Luniverse, Upbit was selected as one of the only two officially licensed Olympic NFT pins, eventually minting Olympic heritage digital pin NFTs.

Luniverse NFT 

Luniverse NFT

Luniverse leads to scale ecosystem and to popularize blockchain through a one-stop NFT service platform so that everyone can proceed with an NFT project. Are you curious about Luniverse NFT? Contact us at for a meeting.

Check out and communicate about the latest news of NFT and Luniverse on Luniverse Discord!


2022 Development Milestone of Luniverse NFT

By Martin Oh, CTO of Lambda256


2021 was a remarkable year for NFT, as it started to play a salient role as a blockchain application. Both trade volume and the price of NFT increased dramatically. The proof of ownership using blockchain technology was the core reason for the success of NFTs.

Traditional artworks are not very reproducible, and their owners are the physical holders. On the other hand, the originality and ownership of digital products – such as images, videos, and sound – were difficult to be proven due to their high reproducibility. Proving ownership of digital products with electronic signature technology applied in blockchain, NFTs started to be used in various fields.

Metaverse, a link between the cyber- and real-world, is no longer a future. Users will more actively create digital products in Metaverse. User-created content, or UCC, was nothing new even before the advent of blockchain. Nevertheless, the consumption of UCC was limited to the service on which it was created; outside the service, the digital content could not be used.

Unlike digital products on the existing UCC services, those made with blockchain prove both the creator and the owner of them. Thus, user-created digital products are not restricted to certain services.

Luniverse NFT Service

To support NFT trends, Lambda256 also revealed the Luniverse NFT service in 2021. Users of Luniverse NFT API can use both Luniverse Main Chain and Luniverse Side Chain, which are selectable depending on the circumstance.

Using Luniverse NFT service API, users can also add functions to issue NFTs on applications. Luniverse NFT service API supports contract management, media data management, metadata management, and token management.

In contract management, users can 1) deploy NFT contracts on the blockchain and 2) view the list of deployed contracts. In media data management, users can manage the images, videos, and audio of the NFT tokens. Media data are saved in AWS S3, and the services are connected to the CDN service for a quick download in the application.

  "txHash": "0x282f516032853441ee9cddadac9df39e48c60aeab73a08cacbb24288324d127b"
  "from": "0x42f8ef8f7e39fa1da1de9ba6065e7d393726c4ad",
  "to": "0x39ee482623594871d2eaf7ccd0b9c6120ad434f8",
  "data": "0x05be2544..."
  "nonce": 386
  "txHash": "0x4822f894db734c80c22bd7bf94f2566b8283e97589e4c9bf799e32e1dbe8b100"
  "from": "0x42f8ef8f7e39fa1da1de9ba6065e7d393726c4ad",
  "to": "0x39ee482623594871d2eaf7ccd0b9c6120ad434f8",
  "data": "0x05be2544..."
  "nonce": 387
  "txHash": "0xbe2801f406a07694f2407bee047c468e9061b2440c481a71d2c692272809b3bd"
  "from": "0x42f8ef8f7e39fa1da1de9ba6065e7d393726c4ad",
  "to": "0x39ee482623594871d2eaf7ccd0b9c6120ad434f8",
  "data": "0x05be2544..."
  "nonce": 388

For example, if the 387 transaction above disappears after the 386 transaction is mined, the 388 transaction pauses in the waiting queue before being processed. After a certain amount of time, the 388 disappears.

The patented technology, the Transaction Pipeline, prevents such issues.

  "from": "0x42f8ef8f7e39fa1da1de9ba6065e7d393726c4ad",
  "to": "0x39ee482623594871d2eaf7ccd0b9c6120ad434f8",
  "data": "0x05be2544..."
  "from": "0x42f8ef8f7e39fa1da1de9ba6065e7d393726c4ad",
  "to": "0x39ee482623594871d2eaf7ccd0b9c6120ad434f8",
  "data": "0x05be2544..."
  "txHash": "0xbe2801f406a07694f2407bee047c468e9061b2440c481a71d2c692272809b3bd"
  "from": "0x42f8ef8f7e39fa1da1de9ba6065e7d393726c4ad",
  "to": "0x39ee482623594871d2eaf7ccd0b9c6120ad434f8",
  "data": "0x05be2544..."

Luniverse NFT Minting Tool

< NFT Contract Management API >

< NFT Media Data Management API >

< NFT Metadata Management API >

< NFT Token Management API >

The API specifications of the Luniverse NFT service can be checked at

Luniverse NFT Minting Tool

Luniverse NFT API provides basic functions necessary to issue NFT only in API, which means that it is a tool for developers, so it is difficult for users who are not developers to issue NFTs. Thus, we made an NFT Minting Tool for non-developers. The NFT Minting Tool offers functions for contract deployment, media data management, metadata management, and token issue, using a web interface.

NFT Metadata

The NFT Metadata is largely divided into basic metadata and extended metadata – or on-chain metadata and off-chain metadata, based on where it is saved. Basic metadata is defined in the ERC721, the standard of the Ethereum NFT, and is saved on-chain. Basic metadata of the Luniverse NFT service is saved on-chain, while the extended metadata is saved off-chain.

  • Basic metadata: name, symbol, and tokenURI are basic metadata, and they are defined in the ERC721Metadata interface. Name and symbol are the same value regardless of the token, and only the tokenURI alters based on the token ID. tokenURI, on the other hand, can be set to change depending on the status of a token. Basic metadata can be viewed on-chain using the ERC721 contract.
interface ERC721Metadata  {
    function name() external view returns (string _name);
    function symbol() external view returns (string _symbol);
    function tokenURI(uint256 _tokenId) external view returns (string);

All metadata except for the basic metadata is called extended metadata. The extended metadata can be recorded on or outside the blockchain; the Luniverse NFT service records all extended metadata off-chain.

  • Extended metadata: By extending the ERC721, extended metadata can be saved and viewed on-chain. In fact, it is ideal to record the extended metadata on the blockchain. However, it requires a high storage fee. Therefore, Luniverse saves the extended metadata only off-chain.
  • Off-chain metadata: Metadata that cannot be viewed through the chain, but through tokenURI
    • The two types of off-chain metadata are media data and property data. The current version of the Luniverse NFT service directly saves and manages metadata in the NFT service. Because of the decentralizing feature of the blockchain, NFTs can be used without being restricted to a certain service. However, for smooth web service, metadata is now managed in a centralized server. To transact NFT tokens issued in Luniverse to a decentralized wallet, such as Metamask or D’cent, the metadata of tokens should be copied to P2P decentralized storage, such as IPFS. Then, the owner of the token will completely own the metadata without a centralized server.
 "name":"BraveGirls Eunji Special Color (B&W) #15/15",
 "description":"[Special Color (B&W)] The best sniper on earth, Eunji",
 "ipfs" : "ipfs://777070ca-6030-4331-b47b-712e3fa0a47f/2021-06-15T09:07:18.184Z.png",
 "createdBy":"John Smith",
   "width": 96,
   "height": 96

NFT Media Data

Luniverse NFT service currently saves media data in S3 and offers a function to view media data through CDN for a smooth service. The NFT contract is built to prove the originality of the media data by recording a hash value.

Luniverse plans to offer an option for the media data to be viewed in a decentralized wallet without a centralized server, just like for the metadata. The function will be offered by copying in a P2P decentralized file system, like IPFS.

Functions To Be Added

NFT Minting Tool

Currently, Upbit and Upbit CPs(Content Providers) are provided with NFT minting tools for Upbit Marketplace. Data shows that Luniverse users mint NFT for B2B uses more than individual uses, so Luniverse will offer B2B NFT Minting tool in SaaS (Software as a Service format) within the first quarter of 2022.

Multichain Support

Luniverse NFT Minting Tool, at this moment, only allows NFT deployment in the Luniverse Main-Chain and Side-Chain. However, requests to deploy NFT tokens on Ethereum Mainnet are increasing among Luniverse users because the token deployment in Ethereum is accepted in virtually all VASPs or marketplaces. Therefore, by the third quarter of 2022, various chains – such as Ethereum, Polygon, and Solana – will be supported for NFT deployment.

Decentralized Metadata Service

Luniverse supports some decentralized wallets, like Metamask and D’Cent. Users that use decentralized wallets need to inquire about metadata and media data without a centralized service. Luniverse will develop an inquiry function about metadata by saving NFT metadata and media data in the P2P file system, which means that a centralized server will not be necessary.

NFT Bridge

As of February 2022, there are approximately 38,488 NFT contracts deployed in the Ethereum blockchain, and fees to transact NFTs are around $18. Activation of blockchain applications such as DeFi and NFT brings about high gas fees and transaction process performance issues. Ironically, as more people use the Ethereum Mainnet, both the value and transaction fees of Ethereum increase, eventually hampering the use of Ethereum Mainnet.

Once Metaverse is activated, various items to ornate Metaverse will be created and traded as NFTs. If the transactions of the Metaverse are recorded in the Ethereum Mainnet, the services related to NFTs will not be smoothly supported due to the low transaction process rate. Thus, the Metaverse systems will likely have to create their own blockchain.

However, they will also have to support trading NFTs created on other public chains on their service, which will require bridge protocols. Luniverse is building an NFT bridge to enable the use of NFTs deployed in Ethereum, Solana, and Polygon; by the end of the first quarter of 2022, Ethereum Mainnet bridge service will be supported.


For the last three years, Luniverse has been developing a BaaS platform for users without much blockchain knowledge to easily use blockchain. In 2022, Luniverse, as a blockchain enabler, will develop various services and tools that will contribute to popularizing NFT.

Luniverse NFT 

Are you curious about Luniverse NFT? Contact us at for a meeting.

Join the Luniverse Discord community to check out and communicate about the latest news of Luniverse and NFT!

The Best Consensus Algorithm for Enterprise Blockchain

Blockchain can be defined as a decentralized network technology composed of numerous nodes. In a blockchain environment, it is important that all participating nodes save data like transactions consistently; otherwise, data crashes among nodes can yield data disorder. Thus, consensus algorithms, which are made to prevent crashes, are the core technology of blockchain. The role of consensus algorithms is to make all data on the blockchain be saved identically on all participating nodes. In other words, they help nodes agree on which data to save. A professor at the University of Fribourg, Andreas Meier, mentioned in his paper that “blockchain = consensus algorithms + decentralized environment.” This sentence alone demonstrates the importance of consensus algorithms in the blockchain.


PoS: The Next Trend, But Not for Enterprises

Proof of Work: The First-Generation Consensus Algorithm

What are some examples of consensus algorithms? The most familiar is Proof of Work (PoW), which is also known as mining. Those who win over computing power earn the right to generate a block.

Most blockchains of the initial Bitcoin era chose PoW as their consensus algorithms; first-generation Ethereum also uses PoW. However, as mining the blockchain became more competitive in 2017, the excessive use of electronics has been pointed out as a culprit of environmental destruction. The anti-environment feature of PoW led to an increasing number of skeptics. The skeptics also criticized the extreme use of physical assets for digital assets. Thus, a new type of consensus algorithm, Proof of Stake (PoS), has gained a spotlight.

Proof of Stake: Consensus Algorithm by Staking

Miners of PoS, unlike those of PoW, compete by staking tokens instead of computing power. In other words, miners in PoS gain more rights to generate blocks if they staked a larger amount for a longer period.

PoS has largely two advantages. The first is fairness. Anyone with tokens can try to create a block, which is fairer than PoW which requires expensive and fancy computing power equipment.

The second is that no cost is needed to generate blocks (costless block generation). To mine in PoW environment, you need to pay for electricity. The only cost needed for PoS is, on the other hand, the opportunity cost for providing liquidity of that token or coin.

Due to two powerful strengths, public blockchains often use PoS. Solana, Polygon, and 2nd generation Ethereum have all implemented PoS. However, PoS-based blockchains are not suitable for enterprises for remarkable drawbacks.

Three Reasons PoS Is Not for Enterprise

The first problem comes with initial coin distribution. In a PoS environment, winners might take all. The strength of PoS is that anyone with tokens can participate in block generation. However, a chance to participate does not guarantee a right to generate a block. The staking amount is positively correlated with the chance to win the block generation. Initial miners who invested a large amount earn more rights to generate blocks, thus more rewards and additional tokens to stake. Eventually, the rights to generate blocks are distributed unevenly. PoS is then no longer fair. For example, out of 1,700 miners of Solana, the top 16 miners take up approximately 34% of all staking. Very few miners are generating most blocks.

The second is costless simulation. One of the strengths of PoS is cost – only the opportunity cost is spent. However, the low cost makes PoS vulnerable to malicious attempts to generate wrong blocks. The PoS-based blockchains are trying to prevent such attempts by a penalty policy – confiscating all staked tokens of malicious miners.

The last problem is uncertified block miners. The malicious attempts as above happen because the miners are not certified. Miners might not meet their obligations to generate blocks. This is crucial for enterprises that need to provide constant credibility to the customers. The assumption of enterprises is that their service will not be interrupted. In contrast, public blockchains admit the possibility of interruption and deal with a problem afterward. Last year and this January, for instance, Solana was interrupted a few times.

Luniverse with PoA Consensus Algorithm


Then what should be a consensus algorithm for enterprises? Proof of authority (PoA) is an appropriate option. Credible institutions related to the blockchain participate in generating blocks in PoA. PoA complements the drawbacks of PoS.

First, all participants can equally receive the right to generate blocks because authorities generate them. PoA is not a competition-based mining system, unlike PoW or PoS. However, participants with authory generate blocks only with credibility. Thus, there is no winner to take all.

Second, since blockchain miners are credible institutions, PoA is almost free from malicious attacking attempts. There is little chance that a block goes wrong because credibility has been confirmed at the participating stage. PoS, which does not confirm participants, is also open to hackers, hampering the governance credibility. However, the blocks of PoA are created only by trustworthy participants, granting credibility to the governance.

Considering such strengths, Lambda256 is using PoA as a consensus algorithm of Luniverse. The participants of Luniverse build their own chains to earn authority, so that even the enterprise services can apply blockchain.

Luniverse Enterprise Blockchain

Solution Designed for Enterprise

Applying blockchain to existing or a new business requires a stable blockchain environment. For enterprises, a blockchain service needs to be both stable and flexible. Lambda256 will provide anything you are seeking for in the blockchain industry.

Curious about Luniverse enterprise solution? Contact us at for a meeting.

NFT, the Word to Be Gone in 2022

One of the most famous English dictionaries, Collins, nominated NFT as the “2021 word of the year.” It seems like NFT comes to mind before Bitcoin when explaining blockchain technology. However, the word NFT may be gone in 2022, and here is why.

Continue reading

2022 루니버스 엔터프라이즈 블록체인 트렌드

들어가며, NFT의 폭발

수년 전 ‘오랜 시간이 흐르면 실제 세상도 저렇게 될 수 있겠구나’ 신기해 하며 보았던 영화의 한 장면이 한 순간 ‘메타버스’라는 이름으로 우리 앞에 다가왔다. 이제는 대부분의 기존 기업들이 메타버스 공간을 통해 사업을 확장하고 있고, 새로운 종류의 경제수단으로 메타버스가 활용되기 시작했다. 메타버스는 게임에 기반하여 발전하여 COVID-19이 촉발한 급격한 비대면으로의 전환을 타고 인간생활의 전반으로 확장되고 있다.

2021년 폭발한 NFT는 이러한 메타버스 기반 경제에 기름을 붓는 역할을 하며 급성장하고 있다. 한가지 우려되는 점은 NFT의 가상자산에 대한 정의 여부이다. 이는 곧 규제와 연결되기 때문이다. 그러므로 NFT의 가상자산 여부는 향후 관련 활동에 큰 영향을 미치게 될 것이다. 현재는 FATF의 『가상자산과 가상자산 사업자에 대한 지침』에서 ‘상호 교환 가능하다‘라기 보다는 ‘고유하다’라는 특성을 지니며, 지불이나 투자 수단으로서가 아닌 수집품으로 사용되는 디지털자산을 NFT라고 할 수 있으며, 그러한 NFT는 일반적으로 가상자산으로 분류되지 않는다라고 정의하였다.

또한 특금법(특정금융정보법)은 가상자산을 ‘경제적 가치를 지닌 것으로 전자적으로 거래 또는 이전될 수 있는 전자적 증표와 그에 관한 일체의 권리‘라고 정의하며 ‘화폐, 재화, 용역’등으로 교환이 불가능하거나, 발행인이 사용처와 용도를 제한하는 경우에는 가상자산으로 보지 않는다라고 범위를 제한하였다. NFT는 소유자가 타인에게 본인의 NFT를 전송하지 못하도록 설정되어 있으므로 특금법상 가상자산의 범위에 들지 않는다고 해석할 수 있다. 하지만 여전히 당국의 관련자에 따라 서로 다른 해석의 여지를 남기고 있는 것이 현실이며, 만약 NFT가 가상자산으로 분류된다면 NFT를 거래하는 많은 플랫폼은 VASP로서 금융당국이 요구하는 다양한 의무를 수용하여야 한다.

이러한 우려에도 불구하고 NFT를 활용한 산업의 영역은 2022년에도 고도의 성장세를 지속할 것으로 보인다. 가상세계나 게임 등의 거래 수단으로서는 물론이고 수집품, 예술품, 스포츠 등의 지적재산권의 거래를 위한 수단으로서 활용은 여전히 활발할 것이다.

또한 위변조방지, 진품증명 등 산업적 영역의 활용도 측면에서도 다양하게 활용될 것이다. 이미 고가의 해외 명품수입이나 보석류 등을 감정하고 이를 NFT를 통해 증명하고자 하는 요건이 많이 발생하고 있다.

금융중심의 블록체인, Web 3.0, DAO 2.0, DeFi 2.0 그리고 CBDC

2021년의 블록체인 시장을 돌이켜보면 국가별로는 미국, 유럽, 중국 등의 관련 산업지출 비중이 70% 이상으로 주요 선진국 중심으로 진행되고 있으며, 인더스트리 측면에서는 절반이 넘는 60% 정도가 디파이, 디지털 커스터디, CBDC 등을 중심으로 하는 금융분야가 차지했다. 이어서 제조나 유통, 공공영역으로 블록체인 기술이 적용되었다. 그것이 연구 단계이든, 파일럿 단계이든, 실제 업무에 적용된 단계이든 글로벌 100대 기업의 80%이상이 이미 블록체인의 적용을 진행했다.

엔터프라이즈 블록체인 영역의 절반 이상이 여러가지 이유로 Public chain보다는 Private chain 특히 하이퍼레저 패브릭 기반으로 구현되어 있지만, 2021년의 트렌드를 보면 블록체인의 기술과 적용 영역의 확대에 따라 멀티체인(multi-chain) 적용의 요구가 높아지고 있다. 적용하고자 하는 업무의 특성에 맞는 chain의 적용이 필요하다는 것을 인식하게 되었고, 이는 multi-chain을 지원하는 플랫폼과 더불어 채널간 통신을 지원하는 브릿지 기술의 발전을 더욱 가속화 할 것으로 보인다.

블록체인의 도약은 2021년부터 본격화되기 시작한 3개의 물결, ‘웹3.0, 다오2.0, 디파이2.0′ 이 이끌고 갈 것으로 보인다.


Web 3.0

먼저 웹3.0을 살펴보자. 웹의 히스토리를 살펴보면, 웹1.0은 기본적인 홈페이지 시절이다. 기업이 가진 것을 홍보하기 위한 단방향 정보의 창이었다. 웹2.0은 상호 연결성을 위해 이를 양방향으로 연결하였다. 사용자가 단순히 전달된 정보를 읽는 것이 아닌 쓰기가 가능해진 것이다. 이는 모바일 환경의 발전과 함께 사용자가 제공하는 콘텐츠를 중심으로 소셜 활동이 가능한 플랫폼으로 발전하였다. 문제는 사용자가 생성하는 콘텐츠, 즉 데이터의 소유가 플랫폼 사업자가 되면서 불합리가 발생하였다. 초기의 웹3.0은 개인화에 중점을 두었다. 즉, 개인에게 필요한 정보와 서비스를 최적화해서 제공하는 초개인화를 웹3.0의 본질로 정의하였다. 하지만 블록체인이 결합된 웹3.0은 좀 더 큰 가치를 추구하는 개념으로, 중앙화와 독점화가 강화된 소수 플랫폼 기업중심의 인터넷 생태계에서 보다 공정하고 분산된 탈중앙화된 디지털 경제구조를 만들어 나가려고 하는 혁명의 성격을 지니고 있다. 즉, 블록체인 기반 웹3.0은 수평적 가치교환이 가능한 인프라를 제공함으로써, 플랫폼과 같이 중앙화된 기관의 개입없이 참여자들이 생산한 가치를 자유롭게 교환할 수 있는 프로토콜을 제공하는 것이다. 스마트 컨트랙트, 분산인프라, 탈중앙화금융, 디지털인증서, 소유증명, 다오 등이 웹3.0시대와 함께 하게 될 것이다.

DAO 2.0

블록체인기반 웹3.0의 가치를 기반으로 회사의 형태도 변화되고 있다. 이것은 스마트 컨트랙트에 따라 운영되는 분산자율조직(DAO)라는 미래형 회사이다. 최초의 모델인 ‘the DAO‘에서 출발한 다오는 ‘참여자들의 발전을 위한 새로운 사업기회를 개척하고자 하는 협의체’ 정도로 정의되었다.

다오는 합의된 규칙을 스마트 컨트랙트 기반으로 집행하기 때문에 최초의 규칙이 확정되면 이후는 알아서 돌아가게 된다. 이러한 구조는 주주를 기반으로 수직적 임직원의 체계로 구축된 주식회사와는 완전히 다른 개념으로 다오는 기본적으로 주주의 이익이 아닌 구성원들이 합의한 목표달성을 목적으로 하는 협동조합과 같은 구조이다. 유니스왑과 같은 디파이 다오, 넵튠과 같은 벤쳐캐피탈 기반의 인베스트먼트 다오, 컨스티튜션 다오의 사례처럼 특정상품, NFT 예술품 등의 수집을 목적으로 하는 컬렉터 다오, 그 외에도 유명인의 팬클럽 등을 기획사와 별개로 운영하는 소셜 다오 등 다양한 형태의 다오가 활동하고 또 만들어지고 있다.

다오는 수평적인 구조로 참여자의 투표방식을 통해 회사의 운영방향을 설정하고 이를 통해 수익의 공평한 분배를 기본으로 하기 때문에 탈중앙화 가치에 걸맞은 새로운 형태의 회사로 평가되고 있다. 그러나 참여한 지분만큼 투표권을 행사할 수 있는 구조에서 여전히 일부가 상당 비율의 자본금을 투자하고 대부분의 투표권을 가져가는 양상으로 발생되는 부정적인 면은 보완해 나가야 할 숙제이다. 그럼에도 불구하고 신기술의 적용에 가장 개방적 정책으로, 타 지역의 참고사례로 활용된다는 미국의 와이오밍주에서 2021년 다오를 합법적인 유한책임회사로 인정하였으며, 이는 전세계 대부분이 아직 다오를 회사의 형태로 인정하는 법적 근거가 마련되고 있지 않은 상황에서 한단계 진보라고 볼 수 있다.

DeFi 2.0

다오를 적용한 하나의 형태인 디파이2.0은 고이율 기반 유동성 확보라는 단순한 로직을 기반으로 폰지게임과 다를 바 없다는 비판을 받아온 디파이1.0의 약점을 보완한 것이라고 평가받고 있다. 대표적인 사례인 올림푸스 다오는 디파이1.0에 없는 채권시스템을 도입해 프로토콜이 유동성풀을 관리할 수 있는 체제를 만들어 냈고, 일부 냉소적인 시각이 있음에도 불구하고 디파이1.0을 실패하게 만든 토큰의 가격하한선 지지가격을 여전히 잘 지켜내고 있다. 이 외에도 이더리움 담보기반 메이커다오 등 디파이2.0이 새로운 모델을 만들어 가고 있다.

다만 서비스 제공자나 이용자 등의 특정화와 같은 금융당국의 규제 형태와 함께 추이를 지켜볼 필요가 있다. 규제의 이슈에도 불구하고 2021년 한 해에 전세계 디파이 영역은 가상자산대출, 탈중앙화거래소, 가상자산 관리서비스 등을 기반으로 전년대비 무려 7배 이상의 성장률을 기록했고, 이는 올해에 더욱 가속화 될 것으로 보인다. 전세계 기관 투자자들의 자산 포트폴리오에 가상자산의 편입을 계획하는 비중이 높아지면서 디지털 커스터디 관련 디파이 산업도 연간 2배 가까이 성장하고 있다.

국가발행 가상화폐(CBDC) 패권 경쟁

지금까지 인류는 금융의 패권을 중심으로 권력을 쟁취해 왔다. 미국은 세계대전이후 달러의 기축통화화를 통해 세계 패권 국가로서의 자리를 확고히 해왔다. 이러한 달러중심의 미국 패권은 비트코인이 출현하면서 변수가 생겼다. 중국은 누구보다 빨리 중앙은행 디지털화폐(CBDC)의 테스트를 수행했고 올해 베이징 동계올림픽을 통한 확산을 도모하고 있다.

이는 미국을 중심으로 일부 미국에 동조하는 일부 국가들이 정치적 불참을 선언하고 나서는 여러가지 이유 중의 하나라고 볼 수 있다. 이미 세계에서 탑2의 패권 경쟁을 벌이고 있는 중국은 CBDC를 통해 달러 중심의 미국패권을 뒤흔들 계기를 만들고 있는 것이다. 2020년 페이스북(현재 메타)이 리브라(libra)라는 코인을 발행하겠다고 했을 때, 일반 대중은 기대를 가졌으나, 달러의 패권을 우려한 미국정부가 이를 규제한 예를 보면 중국의 의도를 간접적으로 알 수 있다. 이후 페이스북은 디엠(diem) 발행으로 물러섰다가 디엠도 포기하고 미국 사용자만을 대상으로 하는 스테이블코인인 팍소스(paxos) 발행에 그쳤다.

이러한 정치적 배경 속에서 CBDC를 준비하는 각국의 속셈은 제각각 다를 수밖에 없다. 앞서 얘기했듯이 미국은 기존의 금융 생태계를 보존하는 것이 목적이고, 중국은 디지털화폐 생태계를 선점하는 것이 목적이다. 금융 중계의 강국인 홍콩이나 싱가폴은 기존 금융과 새로운 생태계의 중계역할을 통해 이득을 얻으려 하고 있다. 우리나라는 2022년 6월을 목표로 한국형 CBDC의 1단계 파일럿을 한국은행에서 수행하고 있으며, 이어서 하반기에 2단계 파일럿을 수행할 것이라고 한다. 하지만 시장에서는 현재까지 금융당국이 보여온 신중한 자세를 볼 때, 파일럿이 완료되더라도 본격적인 적용이 언제 진행될지에 대해서는 여러가지 의견이 나오고 있는 것이 현실이다. 다만 주변 패권국들이 자국 이익에 기반한 CBDC를 정책적으로 진행하고 있음을 고려하여 우리나라도 CBDC를 둘러싼 세계각국의 치열한 이해관계 속에서 보수적인 접근보다는 전략적 선택을 할 것을 기대한다.

마치며, 제조 리테일 공공 등 산업영역

산업에 불어 닥친 ESG 평가 기준은 기업활동에 커다란 영향을 주고 있다. 기업이 단순한 이윤추구를 넘어 투명한 지배구조를 만들고 환경적, 사회적 가치를 동시에 추구해야 만 그 회사의 가치를 인정하겠다는 것이다. 이러한 ESG 기준은 블록체인 영역에도 커다란 이슈가 될 것이다. 이는 블록체인 업계의 고민이자 기회가 될 수 있을 것이다.  채굴의 전력사용에 대한 논쟁은 이미 수년전부터 진행되어 왔으며, 산업에 가장 많이 적용된 이더리움은 에너지 집약적인 작업증명에서 지분증명 모델로 전환하는 작업이 진행중이다. 산업기회의 측면에서 움직임을 보면, 유럽은 ‘탄소국경제도‘도입을 채택했고 이는 우리나라의 주력 상품 중에 하나인 자동차와 철강의 유럽 수출에 10%이상의 감소 영향을 줄 것으로 우려된다.


글로벌 투자자 블랙록은 투자대상 기업에서 일정 수준의 탄소배출을 줄인 도덕적 기업이 아닌 기업에게는 성장성이 아무리 좋다고 하더라도 투자를 전액 회수할 것이라고 발표한 바 있다. 또한 석탄에너지 기반의 발전소를 수출하고 있는 한국에 대해 네덜란드 연기금은 투자철회를 선언한 바 있다. 이 모든 기업환경과 관련한 변화는 녹색전환을 요구하고 있고 유럽은 대규모 펀드를 통해 회색일자리를 그린일자리로 전환하는 사업을 지원하고 있다. 반면에 한국은 화석에너지 수입의존도가 여전히 90% 이상이며, 재생 에너지 비율로 보면 OECD의 재생에너지 평균인 30%에 절대적으로 부족한 8% 수준으로 전체 OECD 국가 중에 최하위이다.

이러한 위기상황을 기회라고 보는 것은 이미 블록체인을 활용한 그린에너지 수급체계에 대한 고민이 여러 업체에서 진행중이라는 것이다. ESG가 회사의 생존과 연결된 여러가지 규제 정책과 연결되어 있기 때문에 그린에너지 영역의 블록체인은 빠르게 성장할 것으로 예상된다.

2021년에 그러했던 것처럼 대형 리테일 기업을 중심으로 로열티 마케팅의 수단으로 적용되는 NFT의 비중은 점점 높아질 것으로 예상되며, Fintech 기업의 해외송금이나 물류 등에 블록체인의 적용도 한층 가속화 될 것으로 전망된다. 올해에도 과학기술정보통신부는 ‘ 탄소중립, 디지털전환 등 미래형 경제구조 대전환 ‘ 과제에 블록체인 포함하고 있으며 500억이 넘는 예산을 책정하여 블록체인 원천기술 확보를 위한 연구개발과 행정안전부의 공공 마이데이터 유통 체계 구축, 교육부의 배움이력 통합관리 플랫폼, 해양수산부의 DID를 활용한 해양수산분야 디지털전환사업 등 여러 시범사업을 준비하고 있다.


최근에 고객을 만나면, 미팅 말미에 초롱초롱한 눈빛으로 블록체인이 가트너의 하이프 사이클의 어느 단계에 와 있다고 생각하는지 묻는 고객이 심심찮게 있다. 질문하시는 고객께서도 블록체인 기술에 대한 의구심이 없으면서도 변동성이 심한 코인에 대한 과거의 기억이 최근의 NFT의 폭발에 투영되어 묻고 있는 것이 보인다.  

기술로서의 블록체인은 적어도 지금은  ‘계몽단계(slope of enlightenment) ‘의 구간에 접어든 것 같다. 아마도 2022년 한해 동안 마지막 단계인 ‘생산성안정단계(plateau of productivity)‘로 가기 위한 많은 적용 사례 들이 만들어질 것으로 보인다고 답변 드리고는 한다.  실제로 2022년은 기술로서 블록체인이 다양한 기업의 비지니스 케이스로 발현되는 한해가 될 것 이라 믿는다.

Luniverse NFT 

루니버스 NFT에 대해 궁금하신가요? 로 문의주시면 상담을 진행하실 수 있습니다.

루니버스 디스코드 커뮤니티에서 루니버스와 NFT 최신 정보를 실시간으로 확인하고, 소통해 보세요!

Blockchain 2022: This Is What CEO of Lambda256 Foresees

With the beginning of 2022, the CEO of Lambda256 talks about his insights to Blockchain and the role of Luniverse. 

Jay Park, CEO of Lambda256




Back in 2007, people talked a lot about Web 2.0.. Ajax – an asynchronous communication method with passive, static, and full web browser capability – was the core technology that enabled Web 2.0. By implementing a desktop S/W-level dynamic experience on a web browser using Ajax, “Transition to the web” has achieved. These changes were led by web office, Thinkfree, which could replace the MS office. Considering that both Microsoft and Google offices are cloud-based web offices, the web has evolved to 2.0 over the past 20 years. 


Recently, people are talking about Web 3.0. Let aside the different definitions of Web 3.0, what matters the most is the financial flows. The new technology and market growth are driven by the inflows of money and people. Currently, investment funds and capitals are increasing in the technology companies that deal with Blockchain, NFT, DeFi, and Metaverse. This is why Web 3.0 has become a new mega-trend based on these technologies. The arguments on Web 3.0 among Andreesen Horowitz, Elon Musk, and Jack Dorsey are interesting because similar arguments were common back in the Web 2.0 era. However, market leaders such as Google and Amazon eventually emerged from the massive inflow of funds. The Series B investment on Lambda256 – about $60 million – in just two months clearly shows a great interest in Web 3.0.

Lambda256 believes Web 3.0 can make the real world transition to web. People have created a world where most content and services in the real world are connected on the web; one of the very few exceptions is the digitization of assets. When I was in Samsung Pay development project, my team sought to bring the wallet-based payment experience to mobile. People at that time were already used to digital payments with credit cards, so our payment service product successfully brought about the mass adoption of the mobile payment. But another significant problem remained: how can we convert the fiat currency into digital assets? A simple answer was to issue loyalty points backed by the fiat currency deposit. However, it had limitations because it was not reliable, scalable, or manageable enough. The only answer, I believe, is blockchain-based digital assets. The tokenization technology of blockchain grants various economic models via digitalizing diverse forms of assets and connecting each of them through web. Linking traditional assets to service&content-based web. This is what Lambda256 expects from Web 3.0. 

There are two choices to issue and link assets on Web 3.0. One is the private blockchain model meeting the current compliance and regulations, and the other is the decentralized blockchain model which brings the disruptive innovation. There’s no compromise because the governments equate decentralization and illegality. Thus, they control decentralized projects with regulations or taxes.

All virtual asset service providers with the private blockchain business model must comply with government regulations. Even in South Korea, all virtual asset companies must obtain ISMS certification and comply with the Travel Rule from March, 2022. For example, Travel Rule states that withdrawal from centralized exchanges to decentralized wallets such as Metamask that do not comply with the rule is prohibited. In other words, there would be a border between the centralized and decentralized wallets.

The Regulatory-based Blockchain Technology Will Be Important For the Private Blockchain Services.

Existing requirements for the traditional financial services, such as KYC/AML, Travel Rule, and fraud detection system are also required for virtual asset services. Therefore, companies must comply with these regulatory demands when conducting various virtual asset-based businesses such as crypto custody service, and NFT trade platform. Ironically, the virtual asset regulation market might grow according to this trend. For example, VerifyVASP, a Travel Rule service developed by Lambda256, is already deployed to +30 VASPs, and Chainalysis is growing rapidly by providing anti-money laundering (AML) solutions.   The decentralized blockchain businesses are growing rapidly, thanks to its infinite competition and enlarging liquidity due to various ideas becoming protocols. 

Ethereum Becomes Popular But with Slower Speed, While Layer 2 Solutions Will Increase. 

Ethereum 2.0, the most popular public chain, will take a few years to be developed due to its slow speed; nevertheless, it will continue to develop as a platform for issuing trust-based asset contracts, and its asset volume will increase as well. Therefore, roll-up-based layer 2 chain technologies such as bridge technology, optimistic roll-up, and zero knowledge certification (zk) that peg ERC20 and ERC721 assets issued on Ethereum into side chains will grow significantly. The optimistic rollup solutions include Optimism and Arbitrum, and zero-knowledge (zk) roll-up includes looping, zk swap V2, zk sink, AZTEC, Polygon, etc. In addition, Dapper Labs’ sidechain Rhonin and Lambda 256’s sidechain Luniverse are in the spotlight as they can utilize ERC20 and ERC721 assets through Layer 1 Bridge. Of course, layer 1 public chain projects such as Avalanche and Solana, which are compatible with Ethereum EVM, are also growing.

The Growth of the Tokenization of the Virtual Assets, Defi, NFT Will Continue

According to a report published by South Korean National Assembly’s Budget Office (NABO) in September 2021, the size of the virtual asset market has exceeded $1.68 trillion USD globally. According to DeFi Llama, a DeFi dashboard, the total value of cryptocurrency locked (TVL) in the DeFi protocols as of the end of 2021 is $245.2 billion, approximately. NFT market, which has been surging recently, is estimated to be at least about $26.9 billion in 2022, according to an analysis by Chainalysis. Even now, various types of virtual assets, NFT, and DeFi protocols are being created around the world, and the scale continues to increase accordingly. Plus, these new digital assets are not centralized service operations like Google or Naver, but are operated in the services with a new community-type governance models such as DAO(decentralized autonomous organization), in which people with digital assets participate and operate services.

Blockchain as a Service (BaaS) with Easy and Productive Environment will grow rapidly 

Technically speaking, current virtual assets consist of ERC20 tokens, ERC721 NFTs, and smart contracts written in languages such as solidity using them. Clearly, a development environment with high productivity to build contracts and DApps is necessary. Currently, among the most prevalent include Web3.js, Truffle, Ganache, and HardHat, but their environments are far below expectation. Developers who are used to the existing environments like Java, C++, IDE will encounter a lot of difficulties in solving debugging, calculating the execution cost (gas fee), and managing security defects when developing smart contracts. In particular, the nature of blockchain, such as nonce management of large-capacity transactions, data inconsistencies between nodes, and pool-based transaction processing method, hampers developing stable services. 

To solve these difficulties, blockchain service solutions like Luniverse provide a stable chain management and productive development environment. For example, Luniverse lets its users create a sidechain that can be effortlessly connected to Ethereum nodes or Ethereum, develop and distribute contracts with ease, and make use of various utility services necessary for contract development. In addition, security defects can be detected and solved through smart contract audit services such as Odin of Given that losing a large amount of assets due to a small mistake in smart contract code is not uncommon, you will see how important and helpful this development environment is.

Beginning January 2022, Lambda256 operates the next-generation Luniverse Mainnet to activate the Web 3.0 DApp services. In order to accelerate the Web 3.0 services, Luniverse Mainnet enables transferring virtual assets in different types of Layer1s to Layer2 Sidechains, developing and operating NFT, Defi, and real life DApp services through high-performance transactions without gas costs. In particular, it provides an environment where high-level blockchain services can be easily developed by providing high productivity development and operation tools. For example, an independent consortium Mainnet with various business partners can be established and operated on Luniverse. The goal of Lambda256 has always been to bring blockchain into real world and develop daily services via DApp, so it has been supporting the development of various DApp services based on Luniverse BaaS so far. Currently, some of the most active DApp services – ZikTok, M.ilk, Berry, Cherry, Aha, and Gluwa, for instance – are based on Luniverse, contributing to the world of Web 3.0 from their very beginning. In 2022, we hope more global projects inaugurate the era of Web 3.0 via next Luniverse Mainnet and BaaS services. 

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